Cream Puffs

Leavening

Leavening is basically the production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture. Without the air or steam baked goods essentially would all be flat.1

Eggs can contribute to this process of leavening in two ways. First, when fresh, refrigerated or frozen eggs are present in a formulation or recipe they contribute liquid, which then converts to steam as the product is heated, with this steam a primary factor in leavening.2

Secondly, egg white when whipped aerates a product or helps create the air cells that are eventually filled by steam. As the liquids within the baked good turn to steam or form gases with heat, the steam pushes out the walls of the air cells and expands them. In addition, as egg proteins coagulate they form a network with gluten. The network formed between the combination of proteins and starches sets the walls of the air cells to hold the product shape once it cools. Eggs, according to multiple sources, have a great ability to leaven or puff up foods when air is beaten into them,2, 3 and that they aid in leavening overall in baking applications.4

Part of this is due to the fact that egg whites are capable of expanding or creating a foam that is six to eight times their initial volume. When air is incorporated into the protein molecules in egg whites, the proteins unwind and stretch to form an elastic web that encases the air bubbles.5

Adding an acid, such as cream of tartar, vinegar or lemon juice, can help to strengthen and stabilize the egg white foam. Room temperature egg whites create the best foam volume and stability.5

Whole eggs and yolks can also trap and hold air that expands during heating, leavening cake batters and other baked goods.6 Popovers, eclairs and cream puffs for example, do not use chemical leaveners but rely on steam, coagulation and starch gelatinization for structure to create their characteristic shapes. It is the leavening action supplied by the liquid ingredients such as eggs that creates the airy form due to a large cavity in the center. Baking helps the proteins coagulate and properly set the structure.3

1. Mushet C (2008) The Art and Soul of Baking, Sur La Table Inc., Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC, Kansas City, Missouri, USA

2. The Role of Eggs in Cooking and Baking Eggs 101, Food Science, Canada

3. Brown A, Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, Third Edition, Cengage Learning

4. Gisslen W. (2012). Professional Baking, Sixth Edition, Wiley Global Education, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA

5. American Egg Board. “Aeration in Baked Goods.” YouTube, narrated by Shelly McKee, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL; Feb. 29, 2012

6. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

Hollandaise Sauce & Mousseline Sauce (liquid eggs)

Emulsification

An emulsion, as defined by Food Technology, is a “temporarily stable mixture of immiscible fluids, such as oil and water, achieved by finely dividing one phase into very small droplets.”1 Nature designed multiple functions into the egg, including its ability to emulsify. While most commonly associated with mayonnaise,2 the emulsifying capacity of whole eggs, egg yolks and even egg whites plays a role in baking and other applications. The absence of eggs in certain formulations such as mayonnaise can affect emulsion stability and final product appearance.2

Fresh liquid eggs, frozen eggs and spray-dried all have the capacity to emulsify, and according to Christine Alvarado, Ph.D., Texas A&M University, there is no essential difference found between them.3 The most popular forms however, include liquid, refrigerated whole eggs or frozen yolks. Frozen yolk has 10 percent added salt or sugar to promote a smooth, creamy, viscous yolk. Egg white emulsifies due to its albumin protein component, while for egg yolk it is its lecithoprotein content.4

Specifically the egg as emulsifier:

  • Acts as a stabilizing agent by reducing surface tension
  • Reduces the force required to create the droplets that comprise an emulsion

The reduction of surface tension is due to the lecithin or phosphatidylcholine contained within the egg yolk. This amphiphilic molecule has two ends, one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic, which minimizes the energy required to form an emulsion by reducing oil/water interfacial tension.5

There are multiple factors that can affect an emulsion’s stability such as temperature, mixing speed and time and more. Two critical pieces of the puzzle include viscosity and the size and uniformity of the droplet.

An emulsion is thicker or more viscous than its separate components, or the oil and water it contains. Egg yolks provide a viscous, continuous phase. This promotes stability in emulsions because it prevents the dispersed oil droplets from moving around and gathering, or coalescing. Adding egg yolk to whole eggs increases emulsion viscosity, lending it greater stability.

In addition, the smaller the droplet and more uniform in size, the better the emulsion and the better the mouthfeel and texture of the finished product. When mixed at the proper speed and adding ingredients in the proper order, formulators can control droplet size and dispersion. For example, oil must be added slowly to water so that the lecithin within the egg yolk can thoroughly coat the small droplets. This coating acts as a barrier to prevent the droplets from joining back together (flocculating or coalescing) to enhance emulsion stability and improve product appearance and texture.6

Some common applications for eggs as emulsifier beyond mayonnaise and sauces includes salad dressing, ice cream and baked goods such as muffins, bread, cinnamon rolls and cheesecake6 to name a few.

In ice cream, eggs added during the freezing process help promote a smoother texture and ensure the ice cream does not melt rapidly after serving. Emulsifiers also help improve freeze/thaw stability, an important quality for ice cream as well as sorbets, milkshakes, frozen mousse and frozen yogurt.7

Within the commercial baking industry, which relied upon eggs as the first emulsifier, a proper emulsion impacts both product and process. Eggs can help increase product volume, supply a tender crust and crumb, finer and more uniform cell structure, a bright crumb color and slow the crumb from firming, increasing product shelf life. In terms of process, emulsification activity enables proper blending of ingredients and protects the dough during mechanical handling.4

1. Clark J. (2013). Emulsions: When Oil and Water Do Mix, Food Technology magazine, Volume 67, No. 8

2. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Mayonnaise Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Mayonnaise Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

3. Alvarado C. (2016). Emulsification [PowerPoint presentation] College Station, TX

4. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

5. McKee S. (2016). Eggs as a Functional Emulsifier [PowerPoint presentation]. Auburn AL

6. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Cheesecake Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Cheesecake Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

7. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

Lemony Pound cake

Humectancy/Moisturizing

Humectancy, particularly in baked goods, requires the formulator achieve a delicate balance between moist eating quality and water activity control. Too much water activity will prompt mold growth, effectively ending the product’s shelf life. Too little water, in the case of staling or retrogradation, and the product also is no longer suitable for consumption. Egg products can assist with moisture control by binding water, helping with humectancy or by adding a coating to help trap moisture in the finished product.1

Each type of baked good, depending on the ratio of its individual ingredients, will exhibit a different relationship between its moisture content and its water activity level or aw.2

Egg proteins bind water making it less available for microorganisms to grow and cause spoilage.3 Overall, eggs help reduce moisture loss from the baked product to extend shelf life by helping form proper cell structure of the baked product. Proper cell structure traps moisture and holds it, whereas retrogradation or staling occurs when these cell structures collapse.1

Particularly in gluten-free formulating, egg products help contribute humectancy, to help optimize moisture, not just for better shelf life, but also for better product density and rise4

1. American Egg Board. “Extending the Shelf Life of Baked Goods.” YouTube, narrated by Shelly McKee, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL; Feb. 29, 2012

2. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

3. Introduction to Egg Product Training, USDA Food Safety and ….2015 https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/c5c85914-5055-4f09-8098-1a179a1c6e14/01-Introduction.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (accessed May 15, 2017)

4. Vaclavik V, Christian E. (2013). Essentials of Food Science, Fourth Edition, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin, Germany

Edible Packaging Film

Egg whites can be used to prepare edible packaging films, with the egg albumen similar in nature to other types of proteins used for this type of film. “Egg albumen films are clearer and more transparent than those made from wheat gluten, soy protein isolate and corn zein,” according to one source.1

Transparent egg white films are suitable as water-soluble packets or pouches for food ingredients. They also have application in breath mint strips and pharmaceutical strips.

One author explains that natural biopolymers are attractive for use as “green’ materials, considering their renewable and biodegradable nature.” Protein films from natural sources can exhibit meaningful mechanical properties similar in nature, at times, to petroleum polymer films.

The albumen content within egg products presents the most significant source of protein for films and coatings, with the right type of treatment. Additives help enhance the egg white film’s workability, elasticity and flexibility, providing egg white with its vast potential for commercial film and coating applications.2

1. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

2. Guérin C, Audic J. (2007). Bioactive Egg Compounds, Egg-Protein-Based Films and Coatings, pp. 265-273

Better Batter

Binding

The binding property supplied by eggs to food manufacturers proves valuable in numerous applications ranging from appetizers through desserts. Binding may be related to its ability to coagulate and form gels, but in essence, it holds other ingredients together. This binding action mainly benefits product structure, texture and mouthfeel.

In meat or fish formulations for example, egg proteins react synergistically with these other proteins to help bind ingredients together for greater product integrity. One reference states that the synergy between fish and egg white proteins makes egg white powder an “indispensable ingredient” in surimi manufacturing, binding the ingredients together through gelling or coagulation. Egg products form gels easily within certain meat matrices to hold together meat patties and sausages.1

In surimi specifically, another study states that when testing protease inhibitors, egg whites provide a better effect than other proteins. It went on to say that when creating a surimi gel with egg white, the gel formed a network with fewer cavities due to the “effective cross-linking and protein aggregation” between the egg white and fish proteins, that the gel exhibited good physical properties, and the egg white provided high gel strength.2

In prepared foods, the binding action exhibited by egg ingredients, whether through gelation or coagulation, prevents products from crumbing or losing their shape, maintaining a desirable texture and form. When binding breading to foods, research suggests that batter with protein levels of 10 to 15 percent tends to be the most effective binding agent.3

In baked goods, eggs bind other ingredients together naturally, aiding with product structure, texture, form and appearance. Proper binding also lends baked goods a tender crumb and can contribute to a light, airy texture.4


1.Bansal N, Zhang M, Schuck P. (2013). Handbook of Food Powders: Processes and Properties, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

2. Hema K, Shakila RJ, Shanmugam SA, Jawahar P (2016) Functional Properties of Restructured Surimi Gel Product Prepared from Low Valued Short Nose White Tripod Fish (Triacanthus brevirosterus). J Food Process Technol 7:597. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000597

3.USA Poultry and Egg Export Council. “Creating Prepared Foods.” YouTube, narrated by Shelly McKee, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL; Feb. 29, 2012

4. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

Frozen French Vanilla Custard

Crystallization Control/Freezability

Food crystals are neither good nor bad because some are beneficial to food while others are detrimental.1 The key is control. The formulator who masters crystallization can create the desired product taste and texture, with crystallization an important aspect for both those qualities in applications such as frosting, nougat, truffles and ice cream, to name a few.2

Egg products can help control crystallization in confections, frozen desserts and prepared foods. Two of the functions eggs supply, emulsification and foaming, contribute to their ability to aid with crystallization control. Many confections begin with a sugar solution in water. The proteins in egg whites slow down the crystallization process of this sugar solution, or interfere with the action of sucrose molecules to reduce their size and to create a smoother texture and a more pleasant mouthfeel.1,2 Beaten egg whites allow for foam formation and incorporate air into an otherwise dense sugar/water solution, to enhance the melting quality of the product in the mouth.2

Egg yolk in ice cream or other frozen dairy-style desserts aids with density, hardness and texture. Egg yolks help create smaller ice crystals, prevent the ice cream from clumping and aid with whipping properties for desired overrun.2 In frozen desserts the natural lecithin in eggs increases viscosity of the base mix and interferes with the formation of large ice crystals.1 Smaller ice crystals affect product density, hardness and texture.

Eggs help control ice crystallization in prepared foods too, that often will experience a slight thaw during transportation, distribution or even during the consumer’s trip home from the grocery store. In this thaw, moisture is released which then refreezes, forming ice crystals. Once one ice crystal forms, others are attracted to this initial crystalline structure and this pulls moisture out of the product resulting in “freezer burn.” Egg products, particularly egg whites can help, acting as an interfering agent to slow crystallization or only allowing smaller and fewer ice crystals to form.3 Eggs or egg whites can be utilized for this purpose in sauces, breakfast bowls, handheld pocket sandwiches, pastas and other types of applications. Egg white can be part of the formula or applied as a coating or glaze for handheld snacks.4

1. Prepared Foods, Food Crystallization and Eggs, Jones, D, 2013, June 7, http://www.preparedfoods.com/articles/112781-food-crystallization-and-eggs (Accessed May 11, 2017)

2. Controlling Crystallization (2012) McKee S, AEB training module, YouTube, (Accessed May 11, 2017)

3. Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition

4. McKee S. (2012). Prepared Foods: How Egg Products Contribute to Mouthfeel and Texture, AEB training module, YouTube (Accessed May 22, 2017)

Push Pop

Whipping Ability

Eggs and egg whites can be whipped into a foam for aeration and to improve product texture and appearance. Egg products’ whippability plays a role in baking and frozen desserts such as ice cream, in addition to certain confections. The various types of egg products display varying levels of whippability, with differences between egg white, whole egg and egg yolk. Dried eggs also perform in a different manner than liquid or frozen in terms of whippability.1

Pasteurization, a process applied to all further processed egg products, does not impact whippability.2 Egg white for example is very stable in a dried state and its whipping properties remain unaffected unless excessively high temperatures are applied. However the whipping properties of egg products containing yolk do witness a loss in efficacy when in dried form, so refrigerated and frozen are recommended for certain applications.

In angel food cake, egg whites comprise the sole egg ingredient. Dried egg white solids if chosen for application often are reconstituted prior to use. Proper mixing procedures help maximize foam volume. In commercial practice, egg white solids perform well with continuous batter mixing systems.3 When whipped, the proteins within the egg white unfold or denature to form a relatively stable foam structure useful in angel food cake, as well as sponge cake, certain confections and other baking applications.

Whippability has a bit of a different meaning when it comes to ice cream. Whippability refers to the whipping quality of the ice cream mixture itself. The proper emulsifier, such as egg yolk, results in reduced air cell sizes and a homogeneous distribution of air in the ice cream. The lecithin-protein complex in egg yolk solids improves the whippability of ice cream, also lending it a more dry appearance, smoother body and texture and a slower meltdown.4 One reference indicates eggs have a pronounced effect in improving the body and texture, have almost no effect on the freezing point and increase the viscosity—all positive benefits in terms of ice cream manufacture.5

There are mix calculations that help formulate ice cream and frozen dairy desserts, to determine the percentage required of the various ingredients.6 Egg yolk solids are especially desirable in mixes in which butter or buttermilk is used as a main source of fat. Egg yolks or whole eggs improve the rate of whipping more if they are sweetened with 10 percent sugar or corn syrup before they are frozen or dried.

Ice cream, according to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) can be called custard or “French” if the egg yolk content is at least 1.4%.7

1. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

2. Belitz H, Grosch W, Shieberle P. (2009). Food Chemistry, 4th revised and extended Edition, Springer Berling Heidelberg

3. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

4. Campbell J, Marshall R. (2016). Dairy Production and Processing: The Science of Milk and Milk Products, Waveland Press, Inc., Long Grove, Illinois, USA

5. Marshall R and Arbuckle WS, (2000) Ice Cream, Fourth Edition, Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA

6. https://www.uoguelph.ca/foodscience/book-page/mix-calculations-ice-cream-and-frozen-dairy-desserts

7. http://www.milkfacts.info/Milk%20Processing/Ice%20Cream%20Production.htm

Breakfast Empanadas (liquid eggs)

Coating/Drying/Finishing/Gloss/Insulation

Egg products, such as egg whites or egg yolks, supply coating, gloss or finishing to foods within the baking category. Consumers expect a certain appearance on the outside of baked goods, such as color or finish.1 Food color overall is an indicator of quality, including the color of finished baked products.2 The proper coating or finish not only aids with appearance but can also help extend shelf life by sealing in moisture.3

Slightly beaten liquid egg products can serve as a coating or glaze on baked goods, with different variations of the egg mixture according to the desired appearance and texture of the final product. A baker might select either egg yolk, egg white or whole eggs for varying results.3

The white is the primary source of proteins in an egg.4 When whites alone are used as a coating the proteins coagulate and draw moisture from the product, with eventually evaporates, resulting in a crisp surface. An egg wash can also give the baked product a finished, slightly glossy look. Protein browns when exposed to heat, so the addition of an egg wash helps give baked goods a bronzed sheen, in addition to the gloss.3

Slightly beaten yolk or eggs, brushed onto surface of unbaked good helps prevent crust from drying out and lends a glossy look. Added at a certain stage in the baking process, the egg wash can help prevent overbrowning. However in order to seal in moisture, yolks must be used in the egg wash.3

An egg wash application is common not just for bread, but also different types of pastries or pies, to promote browning, create a glossy shine or both. A variety of other ingredients added in different proportions to the selected egg product (whole egg, egg white or egg yolk), will supply different levels of browning, shine and even texture to the crust surface.5

1. http://www.bakingbusiness.com/Features/Formulations/2016/9/Salt's-roll-in-product-appearance.aspx?cck=1

2. Lawless H and Heymann H. (1999). Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices, Springer Publishing, New York, USA

3. American Egg Board. “Extending the Shelf Life of Baked Goods.” YouTube, narrated by Shelly McKee, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL; Feb. 29, 2012

4. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

5. http://www.finecooking.com/article/put-color-and-shine-on-pastry-crust-with-an-egg-wash (Accessed August 10, 2017)

Yellow Cake with Lemon Curd and Meringue Icing (liquid Eeggs)

Tenderization/Texture

While flavor of a food is important, the texture of a food is equally as important. Whether a food is crisp, creamy or chewy, the sensory experience of chewing and swallowing helps consumers enjoy and even identify their favorite foods. Texture is part of food rheology even though textural awareness can be subconscious. Touch is the primary sense used to figure out texture, but kinesthetics (movement and position) sound and sight also are involved.1

In baking in particular, the texture of a loaf’s crumb is a “major quality factor,”2 with texture manifesting itself entirely through the sense of touch. One reference lists descriptors for the crumb that cover the range of smooth, velvety, silky, soft and elastic, or harsh, rough, crumbly, lumpy, coarse or doughy, depending on the texture.3 The grain or cell structure of the crumb greatly influences texture. Fine, thin-walled uniformly-sized cells product softer and more elastic texture than coarse, open and thick-walled cell structure.4

Even crumb color itself is “perceptibly influenced” by the crumb grain size or fineness and uniformity. The finer the grain, the brighter the crumb color as perceived by the human eye, with the grain or the cell structure exposed when the loaf is sliced.4 Therefore both crumb size and color make an impact on the final product texture and acceptance.5

Maintaining anticipated texture for manufactured food products could be essential to successful sales. As quoted from Food Navigator, “Consumers associate specific textures with certain foods and these ideas are often strongly entrenched; they expect cookies to be dry and crumbly not soft and moist. Foods that do not conform to these ideas could at best be seen as a gimmick or, at worst, evoke disgust.”6

Eggs help set the structure the aid with baked good texture, in fact, the uniformly open cell7 structure and fine crumb of many baked goods is due to coagulation of egg proteins during baking.8

Fats in the yolk produce a tender, soft crumb in baked goods such as muffins and cakes9 and retard the onset and rate of firming that occurs with age. Egg proteins within certain food matrices can help maintain product moisture by binding the water in the structure, to prevent it from drying out. In doing so, there are textural benefits, such as a desired level of chewiness that help give products an improved mouthfeel.10

Egg yolk contains lecithin and other phospholipids that act as natural emulsifiers, with this emulsification property a benefit to aspects of finished product texture. The emulsifying action of egg yolk helps produce smooth batters, and subsequently, contributes to volume and texture.11 The egg as emulsifier interacts with gluten to strengthen the protein network to create a desirable texture. Emulsifiers improve gas bubble stability for a light, tender and moist product, retarding staling.12

Lecithin from the egg, in addition to increasing fermentation tolerance in bread, and allowing it to exhibit better dough machinability in commercial baking, also produces a better crumb color, tenderizes the crust and lends the product a smooth texture, while maintaining grain uniformity and lengthening product shelf life.12

1. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2013/jul/02/food-texture-how-important

2. Cauvain SP. (2003). Bread Making: Improving Quality, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

3. Bourne M. (2002). Food Texture and Viscosity (Second Edition) Concept and Measurement, Second Edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

4. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

5. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Sweet Dough Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Sweet Dough Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

6. http://www.foodnavigator.com/Science/Small-texture-tweaks-can-have-a-big-impact-on-food-flavour-satiety

7. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Sponge Cake Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Sponge Cake Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

8. Brown A. (2011). Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, Fifth Edition, Cengage Learning, Stamford, Connecticut, USA

9. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Blueberry Muffin Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Blueberry Muffin Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

10. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

11. Gisslen W. (2012). Professional Baking, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA

12. http://www.bakerpedia.com/ingredients/emulsifiers (accessed May 23, 2013)

Flan

Coagulation/Thickening

Coagulation indicates a change from a fluid to a solid or semisolid (gel) state. The success of many cooked foods depends on the coagulative properties of proteins, particularly the irreversible coagulative properties of egg proteins. The property is one of the egg’s most important functional benefits for food formulators, as it enables eggs to bind foods together, thicken applications, such as custards, omelets and puddings or positively benefit the crumb and structure of baked goods, such as cakes and cookies.1

In cookie formulations, for example, egg proteins permeate the dough and coagulate “contributing rigidity to the crumb and assisting the gluten to hold the volume attained.”2 In a custard or pudding, this coagulative property is responsible for the custard texture and mouthfeel. As one source says, “Eggs are the main thickener in most custard and the yolks make them smooth and rich.”3 Starch is often added to custard to slow the process of coagulation to help prevent overcooking the mixture.

Egg proteins denature and coagulate over a wide temperature range. Natural protein consists of complex, folded and coiled individual molecules. Loose bonds across the folds and coils hold each protein molecule in a tight, separate unit. These bonds can be disrupted when exposed to heat or acid, or by physical means such as whipping, causing the protein to denature.

Coagulation or gelation in eggs can be achieved by several different means, including heat (protein denaturation), mechanical (beating or chipping), sugar (raises the temperature for coagulation), acids (decrease temperature where coagulation is achieved), alkali (high alkali can induce gelling of egg white).4, 7

When two unfolded protein molecules with their oppositely charged ends approach each other, the molecules unite. Essentially, millions of protein molecules join in a three-dimensional network, or simply, they coagulate, causing the egg product to change from a liquid to a semisolid or solid.7

5) and desserts, such as cheesecake, where a lack of eggs or substitutions can negatively impact final product height, appearance, firmness and mouthfeel.6

There are more than 40 different proteins in a whole egg, some only located in the white and others predominantly in the yolk. These proteins influence the rate of denaturation and coagulation. Egg white protein coagulates between 144° F and 149° F (62.2° C and 65° C); egg yolk protein coagulates between 149° F and 158° F (65° C and 70° C); and whole egg protein coagulates between 144° F and 158° F (62.2° C and 70° C). However, a number of variables influence the rate of coagulation, as well as the ability of the proteins to remain in the three-dimensional network.7

1. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

2. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

3.Bansal N, Zhang M, Schuck P. (2013). Handbook of Food Powders: Processes and Properties, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

4. McKee S. (2012) Egg Functionality in Baked Goods, Auburn University, Alabama (PowerPoint)

5. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Pumpkin Pie Filling Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Pumpkin Pie Filling Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

6. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Cheesecake Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Cheesecake Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

7. American Egg Board. “Coagulation in Baked Goods,” YouTube, narrated by Shelly McKee, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL; Feb. 29, 2012

S’more Brownie (dried eggs)

Shelf Life Extension

Freshly baked, grain-based foods tend to lose their desirable, tender crumb within a few days. An increasing number of commercial bakeries are looking for more natural methods of extending shelf life and egg products can help maintain quality throughout the anticipated shelf life of baked goods.1

Staling, drying out or retrogradation is the result of an irreversible process that liberates water and collapses starch molecules. The starch chains swell with water when bread or another baked good is heated in the oven. As it cools, the starch chains start to lose their moisture as the water migrates to other parts of the product and eventually evaporate, leaving the starch molecules to collapse. Then the crumb degrades and leaves dry mouthfeel.1

Egg yolk contains lecithin, an all-natural emulsifier with one end that dissolves in water and the other in oil. This emulsifier lodges in the space between the highly branched starch chain to retard the onset and rate of firming in the baked good that occurs as it ages. In addition, egg yolk has a beautiful yellow hue due to its xanthophyll content, lending baked goods a richness in terms of color, which contributes to perceived quality and freshness.1

Egg white contains unique proteins found nowhere else in human food supply entrap air to create a foam six to eight times greater in volume than the unwhipped egg white.2 The proteins help aerate the baking mixture to create volume and springiness, which suggest freshness to the consumer. Eggs also coagulate, which is the transformation of liquid egg into a semi-solid or solid matrix, binding water and in this way also contributing to product shelf life.1

1. Extending the Shelf Life of Baked Goods (2012) McKee S, Ph.D., AEB training module, YouTube, (accessed May 22, 2017)

2. Vaclavik V, Christian E. (2007). Essentials of Food Science, Springer Science & Business Media

Clarification

Clarification

Eggs, especially whites, can clarify or clear various fluid products, including consommé, broth and even wine. When the fluid is heated, added egg white coagulates, capturing and holding minute particles.1 Depending on the size and weight of the encased particles, the cooked whites may sink to the bottom, allowing the clarified mixture to be carefully poured off. Sometimes the whites may bubble to the top where they are skimmed off, resulting in a crystal-clear product.2

1. https://winemakermag.com/26-a-clearer-understanding-of-fining-agents

2. Food Science Basics: Egg Structure & Uses, The Culinary Institute of America, Chef’s Blade http://chefsblade.monster.com/training/articles/214-food-science-basics-egg-structure-uses (accessed May 18, 2017)

Chocolate Truffles

Richness

One flavor house1 describes ‘richness’ as “hard to define in words but easy to experience on the tongue.” Richness, it says, is “brought about by a complex blend of taste and aroma components working in harmony to provide a soothing, succulent and desirable taste profile.”

What is it about eggs that contribute the elusive quality of ‘richness’ to a dish? In some applications, the richness is due to the complex relationship between the fat in the egg yolk coupled with the lecithin’s emulsifying abilities. In other applications color plays a role. This applies to sauces and condiments like mayonnaise as well as baking applications.

In mayonnaise, for example, the egg yolk works in multiple ways including its surface active agents lecithin and cholesterol, while the egg proteins help form a solid gel structure when coagulated by the added acid component in that style formulation. “Much of the creaminess and richness of mayonnaise is obtained from the combination of oil and eggs in the formulation.”2

The fat from whole eggs or egg yolk provides baking applications with “extra-rich flavor and a velvety texture.” The emulsification properties, that aid in an even distribution of fats and liquid throughout the mixture helps create “smooth batters, satiny custards and creamy curds.”3 This relates more to mouthfeel than to flavor, and plays a role in that elusive property of “richness,” described earlier.

Finer culinary magazines all recommend egg for their richness “Raw egg yolks add richness to all kinds of baked goods from brioche to cake.”4 Egg yolks add a really lovely richness and thickening power to custards and ice cream bases.5 “Whole eggs and milk solids, as constituents of most sweet dough formulations add richness, flavor and tenderness to the product.”6

Even color plays a role in consumer perception of richness. The fat-soluble carotenoids, mainly xanthophyll and minor amounts of carotenes, are responsible for the deep yellow-orange color of the yolk. The intensity of the yellow color in some products that contain eggs, such as cakes, noodles or bread, “is regarded by many consumers as a token of ‘richness.’”7

Certain breads that include whole eggs or extra yolks, commonly described as egg breads, rely on eggs to provide these breads with increased volume, “added richness,” better shelf life and additional protein content. These same egg breads, the reference notes, are baked at a relatively lower temperature than other style breads due to their characteristic “richness” and to obtain a desirable brown crust color.7

1. https://www.givaudan.com/flavours/health-and-wellness/richness (accessed May 17, 2017)

2. O’Brien R. (2004). Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications, Second Edition, CRC Press, LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, USA

3. http://www.thekitchn.com/baking-school-day-1-all-about-eggs-and-baking-222479 (accessed May 17, 2017)

4. http://www.bonappetit.com/test-kitchen/ingredients/article/baking-with-hard-boiled-egg-yolk

5. http://joythebaker.com/2013/10/baking-101-why-we-use-large-eggs-in-baking

6. Food Engineering Aspects of Baking Sweet Goods, page 33 Servet Gulum Sumnu, Serpil Sahin, CRC Press, 2008

7. The Complete Technology Book on Bakery Products (Baking Science with Formulation & Production) 3rd Edition NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers, 2014

Browning/Color

“We eat with our eyes first,” says one article on baking,1 with color so important for baking success that companies actually make meters to measure it. Egg products can contribute to product color in two ways; browning on the product exterior in the case of baked goods, or the product itself such as coloring mayonnaise or muffin interiors.

The proteins within eggs can participate in the Maillard reaction when exposed to heat, producing a desirable brown color. The Maillard reaction is responsible for the golden crust of baked products such as yellow batter cake,2 meat browning and the dark color of roasted coffee.3

In addition, egg yolk contributes rich color to various foods via xanthophyll, a carotenoid with a yellow-orange pigment that gives the yolk its characteristic color.4 Egg yolks impart a rich yellow color to cakes and are often used to fortify whole egg products within formulations to yield a more intense color or increased emulsifying action. The pleasing color that eggs impart to baked foods has long been accepted as a mark of superior quality.5

The beautiful yellow/orange hues of egg yolk, or the xanthophyll it contains, add “richness in color,” which aids perceived quality and freshness for products from mayonnaise to baking applications.6,7 The xanthophyll content, the major pigment in egg yolk, is stable under most conditions encountered in food processing.4

While color is an important factor in food product development, it is “rare for eggs to be used as an ingredient in food products for their color contribution alone,” says one author, since eggs possess multiple functional benefits beyond this coloring ability.6

1. Berry D. (2014). Naturally colorful. Baking Business, Sosland Publishing, Kansas City, online http://www.bakingbusiness.com/Features/Formulations/2014/7/Naturally-colorful.aspx (Accessed May 23, 2017)

2. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Yellow Batter Cake Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Yellow Batter Cake Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

3 Brown A. (2011). Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA

4. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

5. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

6. Smith J, Hui Y. (2008). Food Processing: Principles and Applications John Wiley & Sons

7. American Egg Board. “Extending the Shelf Life of Baked Goods.” YouTube, narrated by Shelly McKee, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL; Feb. 29, 2012

pH Stability

The functional definition of pH is the measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution commonly measured on a scale of 0 to 14. pH 7 is considered neutral with lower pH values being acidic and higher values being alkaline or caustic. PH is the most common of all analytical measurements in industrial processing

  • To produce products with consistent well-defined properties
  • To effectively produce products at optimal cost
  • To avoid causing health problems to consumers
  • To meet regulatory requirements1

While whole eggs are relatively pH neutral, egg white is one of the few food products that is naturally alkaline, with an initial pH value that can be as low as 7.6 at time of lay, but with increasing alkalinity as the egg ages, and can reach pH of 9.2.2 Factors that can influence the pH of the egg include the age of the hen at the time of lay. The pH of a fresh egg yolk is about 6.0 and increases to 6.4 to 6.9 during storage. Storage at refrigerated temperatures greatly slows the pH change and helps reduce the rate of the thick egg white from thinning. In general, the egg pH is stable and does not disrupt food product formulations.3

In terms of foaming, a key functional benefit of egg white in particular, proteins create more stable foams at a pH that is near 7.0 and are less functional as that number rises to 9.0. In order to help stabilize egg white foam, a common approach is to add cream of tartar, which lowers the pH of the egg white and shortens the time necessary to produce a foam.4

1. Queeney K. (2007). The Importance of pH Measurement in Assuring Product Quality, Food Manufacturing magazine, Advantage Business Media, Rockaway, New Jersey, USA http://www.foodmanufacturing.com/article/2007/06/importance-ph-measurement-assuring-product-quality (accessed May 19, 2017)

2. Brown A. (2011). Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, Fifth Edition, Cengage Learning, Stamford, Connecticut, USA

3. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill O.J (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

4. Aeration in Baked Goods: Using Eggs to Create Foams, National Egg Products School, McKee, S. Auburn University, Alabama

Antimicrobial

An antimicrobial by definition is an agent that either kills or stops the growth of microorganisms. Among the various identities the egg can claim, antimicrobial is one of them. Various egg white proteins exhibit antimicrobial properties. One example is lysozyme, which attacks the polysaccharide cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria.1

Lysozyme exhibits no significant functional property on its own, however it interacts easily with other components in food system, and as such could influence actions such as gelation, foaming or emulsification and coagulation. Gels for example, within mixed protein systems producing stronger networks than pure proteins.2

The hen’s egg is actually the richest source of lysozyme among other sources, accounting for 3.5 percent of the albumen proteins.3 Lysozyme is a very stable enzyme.4 It can prevent the outgrowth of microbes in hard cheese production that cause a defect known as “late blowing,” control lactic acid bacteria in wine production and be used as a general food preservative in select applications. Lysozyme incorporated into food packaging materials has the potential to extend the shelf life of non-sterile or minimally processed foods by preventing the contamination by or growth of microorganisms.4

In further research, one recent study suggests that thermal and enzymatic treatments increase the antibacterial spectrum of hen egg white lysozyme in relation to oenological (winemaking) microorganisms and is worth further investigation.5

Other, experimental results suggest that treatment with lysozyme solution could be used as an effective antimicrobial means to extend the shelf life of poultry meat under refrigerated storage.5

1. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

2. Ustunol, Z. (2015). Applied Food Protein Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom

3 .Jimenez-Saiz R, Gordon ME, Carrillo W. (2013). Hen Egg White Lysozyme: Antimicrobial Activity & Allergenicity; Lysozymes: Sources, Functions and Role in Disease, Nova Science Publishers, ebook

4. Huopalahti R, Lopez-Fandino R, Anton M. (2007). Bioactive Egg Compounds, Springer Science & Business Media, Heidelberg Germany

5. Carillo W, Garcia-Ruiz A Recio I, Morano-Arribas MV. (2014). Antibacterial activity of hen egg white lysozyme modified by heat and enzymatic treatments against oenological lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. J Food Prot 2014 Oct;77(10):1732-9

Brioche Monte Cristo with Sriracha Hollandaise Sauce (dried eggs)

Fortification/Protein Enrichment

Among other nutritional benefits, some formulations concentrate on protein fortification or enrichment of foods that may or may not already contain protein. Consumers in the past few years indicate they are interested in increasing protein intake with the majority selecting eggs as their preferred option for protein fortification.1

One large egg contains a wide variety of nutrients for a relatively low calorie count, with just 70 calories containing 6 grams of high-quality protein. For this reason, eggs and egg products are considered “nutrient-rich” according to the definition of the USDA ARS. Nutrient dense foods and beverages provide vitamins, minerals and other substances that may have positive health effects with relatively few calories. In addition, the definition states nutrients and other beneficial substances have not been ‘diluted’ by the addition of energy from added solid fasts, added sugars or the solid fats naturally present in the food.2

Foods formulated with egg products contain all the nutrition originally found in the egg product, including high-quality protein, trans-fatty acid free mono- and poly-unsaturated fats, vitamins, minerals and other highly bioavailable nutrients with recognized health and wellness benefits.3

Of special note is the quality of protein. Eggs contain all nine essential amino acids, with whole egg protein having a biological value of 93.7 on a 100-point scale. The essential amino acid composition of egg protein is similar to the human body’s requirement, allowing the body to use the protein more efficiently to maintain muscle tone and strength as the body ages.3

The egg’s lipid portion, which is found primarily in the yolk, contains 5 percent of the Daily Value of fat-soluble vitamin D, a nutrient associated with bone health. It is a source of lutein and zeaxanthin, two nutrients classified as xanthophyll carotenoids and have been shown to contribute to eye health. While eggs contain only a small amount of these nutrients, research suggests that the lutein and zeaxanthin from eggs may be more bioavailable, or more easily absorbed by the body, than from richer sources. The lipid portion is also a concentrated source of choline, a nutrient necessary for the normal functioning of all cells in all people, with some segments of the population requiring more choline during certain life stages, such as pregnancy.4

1. Food Business News, “Protein-packed items may need specific messaging,” May 6, 2016, Jeff Gelski http://www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/news_home/Consumer_Trends/2016/05/Protein-packed_items_may_need.aspx?ID=%7BED197903-CF17-4809-A9F7-D70C7263B5D6%7D (Accessed May 16, 2016)

2. Nicklas T.A., Drewnowski A., O’Neil C.E. 2014. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities. Public Health Nutrition 17(12):2626-2636.

3. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Choline-HealthProfessional/

4. National Institute of Health, Choline, Fact Sheet for Health Professionals https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Choline-HealthProfessional/

French Macaron Cookies

Aeration/Foaming/Structure

Certain food formulations, particularly in baking, rely on aeration to provide proper product structure. Aeration can be achieved in several ways including biological (yeast), chemical (baking soda), mechanical (methods of mixing certain ingredients or the batter through whipping or beating), physical (lamination or steam), or a combination of those methods. Each is designed to introduce a gas, such as air, into a liquid or viscous solution.1

In baking for example, cake batter as an emulsion requires proper aeration in order not to become “very thin and sloppy.” Dough viscosity can affect processing and machinability as well as end product texture and appearance.2 In cake varieties including yellow, white and pound cakes, if the cake is to have proper volume, grain and texture, the baker must incorporate “considerable” amounts of air into the batter.2

When air is incorporated into a liquid or viscous solution, the solution traps the air bubbles, forming a foam. If proteins stabilize the foam, it leavens a food, increasing its height and reducing its density.3 Eggs supply aeration to baking applications through the mechanical method, with the viscosity of all egg products ideal for incorporating air cells during the whipping or beating process.

As whipping or beating progresses, air bubbles decrease in size and increase in number, surrounded by egg proteins. Liquid egg products have low air-liquid interfacial tension, therefore when eggs are beaten or whipped, the proteins denature, or simply, they unfold. This exposes two oppositely charged ends of the protein molecule: the hydrophobic, or water hating end, and the hydrophilic or water loving end.4 The proteins line up between the air and water, securing the air bubbles with their hydrophilic end and pointing the hydrophobic end in the other direction. During baking, these proteins bond with each other, forming a delicate, yet reinforced network.4,5

Egg whites form foams greater in volume than yolks due to the unique proteins found in the white. In fact, even though the term foam technically refers to any system where there are entrapped air bubbles, in the food industry, when discussing egg products, the term tends to be exclusive to egg white foams. This is because egg whites, unlike any other natural food ingredient, are able to create the largest possible food foam, six to eight times greater in volume than unwhipped, non-aerated liquid egg white.5, 6

The egg white proteins that enable such impressive foaming are ovalbumin and ovomucin. Ovalbumin is responsible for original foam volume when egg whites are whipped, while ovomucin holds onto the air bubbles during heating and has elastic qualities that allow the protein to stretch as the air bubbles enlarge.4

This foaming ability of egg white finds uses in multiple baking applications, particularly angel food cake, which relies on the aerating power of egg white for its characteristic texture, height, appearance and cell structure.7 Certain confections, such as nougat candies, rely on proper aeration for height, appearance and texture, which can suffer when egg white is removed.8

Nowhere perhaps is the power of egg white more readily evident than in a meringue. As one reference tells it, “Of all the culinary magic made possible by the egg, perhaps the most extraordinary feats are accomplished when we take the white away from the yolk and whip it to a foam.”9

Increasing the acidity of egg whites helps stabilize the foam by loosening the protein structure, keeping the foam elastic and stable enough to entrap air cells, and allowing them to expand when heated, resulting in better volume.9

In certain applications whole eggs and egg yolks also increase the volume of foods through the process of aeration, including some baked goods and dairy desserts such as ice cream and custard.

1. http://www.bakingmatters.co.uk/aeration.php (Accessed May 21, 2017)

2. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

3. Zayas J. (1997). Functionality of Proteins in Food, Springer-Verlag, Berling, Heidelberg, New York

4. Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

5. American Egg Board. “Aeration in Baked Goods.” YouTube, narrated by Shelly McKee, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL; Feb. 29, 2012

6. Cousminer J. (2017). Culinology®: Blending Culinary Arts and Food Science, Research Chefs Association, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA

7. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Angel Food Cake Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Angel Food Cake Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

8. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Nougat Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Nougat Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

9. Ruhlman M. (2014). Egg: A Culinary Exploration of the World’s Most Versatile Ingredient, Little, Brown and Company, New York, USA

Brioche

Flavor

Among all product attributes, taste outranks any other product attribute each and every year in an annual survey conducted by the International Food Information Council Foundation. Taste or flavor is the deciding factor for consumers who purchase foods and beverages.1

Though eggs contain more than 100 volatile flavor components, the end results may be described as mild or bland. However, egg yolks contain fats that can carry and assist with the release of flavors of other ingredients within a formulation.2, 10 In fact, it is this ability to carry other flavors that helps create foods consumers recognize and enjoy since fats impact multiple rheological and sensory properties such as flavor, mouthfeel and texture.3 It is difficult for reduced fat or low fat versions of traditional formulations to imitate traditional product quality.3 For example, formulations with fat removed will release flavors like chocolate and vanilla more quickly than in a formula made with traditional levels of fat, “dramatically changing” the perceived flavor of a product.4

As one author states, for breads such as brioche and challah bread, made with whole eggs or yolks only, “the addition of eggs makes both doughs rich and flavorful; take out the eggs and they become other types of bread entirely.”5 In fact some types of baked goods, such as sponge cakes, typically have no other source of fat besides the egg, with the egg supplying both tenderness and flavor.6

Culinology lists dairy and egg based products as essentials: “Classically trained chefs have long considered these products fundamental elements in dishes that deliver a wide range of eating experiences, from breakfast to dinner, from snacks to beverages to entrees to desserts.”7

A series of studies designed to compare the functional and organoleptic performance of egg products to replacers found that egg flavor rarely stands alone as a product feature but that eggs react synergistically with the other ingredients to perfect the desired ‘sweet baked good flavor’8 as classic baking references would agree.6 Researchers state that within the applications they tested, mainly in baking, “flavor compounds develop that don’t occur when one of the main, traditional ingredients is removed.”8 Outside of baking, in applications such as custard, eggs lend a ‘sweet, rich flavor characteristic of frozen custard’ while substitutions are found wanting.9

Eggs when used as an ingredient contribute to the flavor of finished products and when whole eggs or yolks are used, the lipids within enhance the eating experience.3 In general, fats such as those contained in whole eggs and egg yolk influence rheological properties and sensory characteristics such as flavor, mouthfeel and texture.10

1. International Food Information Council Foundation Annual Food and Health Survey. http://www.foodinsight.org/press-releases/survey-nutrition-information-abounds-many-doubt-food-choices (accessed May 16, 2017)

2 Stadelmen WJ and Cotterill OJ. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA

3. Garcia V et al. (2015). Development and characterization of a new sweet egg-based dessert formulation, International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp. 72-82

4. Texture and Mouthfeel: Making Rheology Real, Marsilli, R, 1993, Weeks Publishing Company, Food Product Design http://archive.is/Xd8GU (accessed May 17, 2017)

5. Ruhlman M. (2014). Egg: A culinary exploration of the world’s most versatile ingredient, Ruhlman Enterprises, Inc., Little Brown and Company, New York, USA

6. Pyler EJ and Gorton LA. (2010). Baking Science & Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, Sosland Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, USA

7. Cousminer. (2017). Culinology® The intersection of culinary art and food science, Research Chefs Association, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA

8. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Yellow Batter Cake Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Yellow Batter Cake Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

9. Munday E, Werblin L and Deno K. (2017). Frozen Custard Application Research: Comparing the Functionality of Eggs to Egg Replacers in Frozen Custard Formulations, CuliNex, LLC, Seattle, USA

10. Vaclavik V, Christian E. (2007). Essentials of Food Science, Springer Science & Business Media

Pudding

Adhesion

The proteins in egg products, specifically in the whites, assist with adhesion and ingredient binding. When they are heated or exposed to acid, they coagulate, causing the egg product to change from a liquid to a semisolid or sold. When the proteins solidify, they function as an adhesive, connecting ingredients or food components with each other.

An egg wash for example, can be brushed onto the surface of baked foods in order to hold topically applied nuts or seeds. The proteins help these decorative elements adhere to the surface of the baked good during baking. An egg wash can also help control moisture depending on the type of egg mixture used for the egg wash. Egg yolks or whole eggs will seal in moisture while egg white proteins will draw moisture out.

In addition, egg products often are added to batters used for breaded foods to help the breading adhere to the substrate. Research suggests that batter with protein levels of 10 to 15 percent tend to be the most effective binding agent.1 Adding seasoning or flavorings to the egg wash helps ensure even distribution of the seasoning.2

The chemistry of egg protein coagulation explains how egg products assist with binding ingredients in multi-component prepared food system, preventing products from crumbling, losing their shape or falling apart


1. McKee S. (2012). Prepared Foods: How Egg Products Contribute to Mouthfeel and Texture, AEB training module, YouTube (Accessed May 22, 2017)

2. Brown A. (2011). Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, Fifth Edition, Cengage Learning, Stamford, Connecticut, USA


Eggcyclopedia

Egg facts


Egg Products & Specifications

Baking with Egg Whites