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Facts About the Egg Production Process

When considering the purchase of eggs for your operation, there are a number of available options. America’s egg farmers produce eggs from multiple production systems – conventional, cage-free, free-range and organic. Here are some facts about the egg production process that you may want to consider:

  1. Conventional Cage Eggs
  2. Cage-Free Eggs
  3. Free-Range Eggs
  4. Organic Eggs
  5. Other Egg Facts

1. Conventional cage eggs - are produced from hens living in communal cage systems. There are multiple cage systems, depending upon the size of the birds, and the facility as well. Farmers that utilize the cage system participate  in handling and care practices as well. While providing hens with access to fresh food and water, cages also work as nesting space. Cage-laid eggs are collected with an automatic collection system. Cage systems help protect against predators. back to top ^

2. Cage-free eggs - are laid by hens living on indoor floor operations, sometimes called free-roaming hens. The hens are usually housed in a barn or poultry house, and have unlimited access to fresh food and water, while some may also forage if they are allowed outdoors. Cage-free systems vary and include barn-raised and free-range hens, both of which have shelter that helps protect against predators. Both types are produced under common handling and care practices, which provides floor space, nest space, and perches. Depending  upon the farmer, these housing systems may or may not have an automated egg collection system. back to top ^

3. Free-range eggs - are produced by hens raised outdoors or that have access to the outdoors, as weather permits. Shelter is provided during inclement  weather and to help protect from predators. In addition to having continuous access to fresh food and water, these hens may forage for wild plants and  insects and are sometimes referred to as pasture-fed hens. These hens are  also provided with floor space, nest space, perches. Free-range hens also are cared for under common handling and care practices. back to top ^

4. Organic eggs - are produced according to national USDA organic standards related to methods, practices and substances used in producing and handling crops, livestock and processed agricultural products. Organic eggs are produced by hens fed rations having ingredients that were grown withoutmost conventional pesticides, fungicides, herbicides or commercial fertilizers. Antibiotics and growth hormones are prohibited (growth hormones are also prohibited in conventional systems as well). All organic systems are cage-free. back to top ^

5. Other Egg Facts

  • The nutrient content of eggs from the same breed of hen fed the same diet is not affected by whether hens are raised free-range or in floor or  conventional operations. It is solely determined by the feed.
  • Approximately five percent of eggs come from cage-free systems and they are typically more expensive than conventional eggs. Due to higher production costs and lower volume per farm, free-range eggs are generally more expensive.
  • Research has indicated that hens kept in cage-free or free-range systems have higher rates of mortality than those kept in conventional production systems.
  • Research shows that eggs from modern conventional systems have lower shell bacteria levels than eggs from cage-free or free-range eggs. back to top ^