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Nutrient Composition

For today's consumers, eggs hold a positive perception: Eggs are okay to eat again. And that's good news ? because as those consumers become more health-conscious, they are choosing foods with minimal ingredients and fewer synthetic additives.

In fact, eggs perform multiple functions in making and processing food. And they simplify the ingredient statement.

Chemical Composition tables

1.1 Assayed Egg Nutrient Values
1.2 Egg Vitamins
1.3 Egg Minerals
1.4 Egg Lipids
1.5 Egg Amino Acids
1.6 Eggs as Nutraceuticals

Eggs have been long regarded around the world as a beneficial ingredient for health and nutrition. Contemporary science is looking closer at the potential nutraceutical benefits of eggs.

  • Lysozyme is extracted from egg white. Lysozyme is used in eye drops and various cold remedies. Lysozyme is also utilized as a preservative for cheese.
  • Avidin from egg white has been used for affinity chromatographic columns for various analytical methods.
  • Egg yolk contains lutein, which has been shown to be a factor in preventing age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.  While eggs contain a small amount of this nutrient, research has shown that lutein from eggs may be more bioavailable, or absorbed and used by the body, than from richer sources.
  • Choline from egg yolk has been shown to aid in memory development. 
  • Eggs are utilized as a culture medium in producing several vaccines used to treat various viruses.
  • Egg yolk has been indicated to be beneficial to skin. Thus, egg yolk is added to shampoos, skin creams and other cosmetic applications.
  • Antibodies from eggs may be used to treat various viruses.
  • Egg yolk is used as a preservative for bovine spermatozoa used for artificial insemination.

1.1 Assayed Egg Nutrient Values -

FACT 1.1  According to a study conducted by Food Processing magazine and the American Egg Board, food processors prefer real eggs over alternatives. They know eggs perform multiple functions in food product formulations and keep ingredient statements short and clean.

nutrients
(per 100g)

liquid*/ frozen

dried

whole eggs yolk sugared yolk salted yolk salted whole eggs white whole eggs yolk stabilized white
Protein - g 12.56 15.86 13.80 14.00 10.97 10.90 47.35 34.25 82.40
Moisture - g 76.15 52.31 51.25 50.80 67.83 87.57 3.10 2.95 8.54
Fat - g (total lipid) 9.51 26.54 22.75 23.00 10.07 0.17 40.95 55.80 0.04
Ash - g 1.06 1.71 1.40 10.60 10.30 0.63 3.65 3.40 4.55
Carbohydrate - g 0.72 3.59 10.80 1.60 0.83 0.73 4.95 3.60 4.47
Free Glucose - g <0.1 0.2 N/A N/A N/A 0.3 0.3 <0.1 0
Calories - kcal 143 322 307 274 138 52 594 666 376
Cholesterol - mg 372 1085 959 955 387 0 1507 2052 0
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23 (2010).
*Nutrient values for liquid eggs may include a small variation from frozen eggs.
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1.2 Egg Vitamins -

FACT 1.2  Eggs have a high nutrient density because they provide excellent protein and a wide range of vitamins and minerals in proportion to their calorie count.

vitamins
(per 100g)
liquid*/ frozem dried
whole eggs yolk sugared yolk salted yolk salted whole eggs white whole eggs yolk stabilized white
Niacin - mg 0.075 0.024 0.023 0.040 0.077 0.105 0.305 0.095 0.723
Riboflavin - mg 0.457 0.528 0.530 0.430 0.443 0.439 1.540 1.880 2.316
B12 - mcg 0.890 1.950 1.770 2.520 1.210 0.090 3.950 5.330 0.530
Pantothenic Acid -mg 1.533 2.990 3.200 3.230 1.260 0.190 5.905 7.765 1.958
Vitamin A - IU 540 1442 1315 1190 497 0 997 3031 0
Thiamin - mg 0.040 0.176 0.135 0.130 0.060 0.004 0.195 0.290 0.037
Pyridoxine (B6) - mg 0.170 0.350 0.284 0.261 0.226 0.005 0.388 0.660 0.024
Folate - mcg 47 146 139 107 69.000 4 171 244 96
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) - mg 1.050 2.580 N/A N/A 0.800 0 3.880 5.420 0
Vitamin D - IU 82 218 N/A N/A 61.000 0 321 458 0
Lutein + Zeaxanthin - mcg 503 1094 N/A N/A 417.000 0 1329 2299 0
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23 (2010).
*Nutrient values for liquid eggs may include a small variation from frozen eggs.
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1.3 Egg Minerals -

FACT 1.3  Many additional ingredients are required to substitute for the functionality of eggs in a recipe or formula. Contemporary consumers, however, are turned off by food labels displaying synthetic additives and unfamiliar ingredients.

minerals
(per 100g)
liquid*/ frozen dried
whole eggs yolk sugared yolk salted yolk salted whole eggs white whole eggs yolk stabilized white
Calcium - mg 56 129 123 114 55 7 231 284 89
Iron - mg 1.75 2.73 3.14 3.75 1.71 0.08 6.79 5.42 0.24
Magnesium - mg 12 5 10 10 9 11 42 13 72
Phosphorus - mg 198 390 384 431 186 15 831 920 89
Potassium - mg 138 109 103 117 128 163 493 244 1116
Sodium - mg 142 48 67 3780 3663 166 523 135 1238
Zinc - mg 1.29 2.30 2.81 2.84 1.30 0.03 5.28 4.93 0.16
Copper - mg 0.072 0.077 0.012 0.109 0.064 0.023 0.196 0.012 0.170
Manganese - mg 0.028 0.055 0.059 0.062 0.033 0.011 0.125 0.119 0.050
Selenium** - mcg 30.70 56 37.70 37.70 30.4 20 119.60 86.80 125.10
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23 (2010).
*Nutrient values for liquid eggs may indicate a small variation from frozen eggs.
**Selenium may vary in different areas of the U.S.
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1.4 Egg Lipids -

FACT 1.4  Eggs contain an insignificant amount of trans fat. Similar to some fats and oils, eggs impart a rich texture, mouthfeel, flavor, and color to prepared foods.

lipids
(per 100g)
liquid*/ frozen dried
whole eggs yolk sugared yolk salted yolk salted whole eggs white whole eggs yolk stabilized white
Saturated, Total - g 3.126 9.551 6.970 7.028 3.178 0 12.727 17.154 0
14:0 Myristic 0.033 0.104 0.073 0.073 0.039 0 0.139 0.180 0
16:0 Palmitic 2.231 6.860 5.066 5.098 2.297 0 9.233 12.559 0
18:0 Stearic 0.811 2.417 1.795 1.821 0.820 0 3.291 4.326 0
Monounsaturated Total - g 3.658 11.738 8.614 8.849 4.000 0 15.337 21.129 0
16:1 Palmitoleic 0.201 0.918 0.550 0.574 0.260 0 1.009 1.373 0
18:1 Oleic 3.411 10.701 7.983 8.175 3.697 0 14.162 19.536 0
20:1 Eicosenoic 0.027 0.086 0.055 0.064 0.029 0 0.116 0.149 0
Polyunsaturated
Total - g
1.1911 4.204 3.244 3.150 1.627 0 5.804 7.895 0
18:2 Linoleic 1.555 3.538 2.599 2.513 1.324 0 4.614 6.423 0
18.3 Linolenic 0.048 0.103 0.055 0.064 0.044 0 0.111 0.126 0
18:4 Morocitic 0 0 N/A N/A 0 0 0.056 0.068 0
20:4 Apachidonic 0.188 0.438 0.363 0.355 0.170 0 0.569 0.837 0
20:5 Timnodonic (EPA) 0 0.011 0.100 0.109 0 0 0.278 0.203 0
22:6 Docosahexaenoic 0.058 0.114 0.104 0.109 0.046 0 0.176 0.239 0
Trans Fat - g 0.038 N/A N/A N/A 0.090 0 N/A N/A 0
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23 (2010).
*Nutrient values for liquid eggs may indicate a small variation from frozen eggs.
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1.5 Egg Amino Acids -

FACT 1.5  Whole eggs and egg whites in particular, are frequently used in product formulations to help create smooth and creamy finished products. In addition to their own ability to aid browning, alkaline eggs can improve browning of acidic products - which ordinarily will not brown - by reducing their acidity.

amino acids
(per 100g)
liquid*/ frozen dried
whole eggs yolk sugared yolk salted yolk salted whole eggs white whole eggs yolk stabilized white
Alanine - g 0.735 0.836 0.709 0.719 0.607 0.704 2.636 1.759 5.313
Arginine - g 0.820 1.099 0.985 0.999 0.7 0.648 2.841 2.444 4.812
Aspartic acid - g 1.329 1.550 1.349 1.369 1.113 1.220 4.758 3.348 7.291
Cystine - g 0.272 0.264 0.247 0.251 0.24 0.287 1.099 0.614 2.044
Glutamic Acid - g 1.673 1.970 1.749 1.774 1.417 1.550 6.190 4.340 11.496
Glycine - g 0.432 0.488 0.426 0.432 0.363 0.413 1.591 1.058 3.085
Histidine - g 0.309 0.416 0.358 0.363 0.273 0.290 1.121 0.888 1.872
Isoleucine - g 0.671 0.866 0.698 0.708 0.56 0.661 2.583 1.732 5.023
Leucine - g 1.086 1.399 1.212 1.230 0.94 1.016 4.046 3.009 7.172
Lysine - g 0.912 1.217 1.095 1.111 0.793 0.806 3.402 2.718 5.076
Methionine - g 0.380 0.378 0.342 0.347 0.303 0.399 1.477 0.849 3.204
Phenylalanine - g 0.680 0.681 0.590 0.598 0.577 0.686 2.515 1.463 5.181
Proline - g 0.512 0.646 0.576 0.585 0.42 0.435 1.886 1.430 3.098
Serine - g 0.971 1.326 1.179 1.196 0.85 0.798 3.523 2.926 6.078
Threonine - g 0.556 0.687 0.733 0.744 0.483 0.449 2.273 1.819 3.665
Tryptophan - g 0.167 0.177 0.161 0.164 0.226 0.125 0.576 0.400 1.266
Tyrosine - g 0.499 0.678 0.614 0.623 0.463 0.457 1.932 1.523 3.309
Valine - g 0.858 0.949 0.768 0.780 0.673 0.809 2.886 1.907 6.170
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23 (2010).
*Nutrient values for liquid eggs may indicate a small variation from frozen eggs.
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1.6 Eggs as Nutraceuticals -

FACT 1.6  Eggs contribute valuable nutrients, from their high-quality protein to significant levels of beneficial vitamins, antioxidants, and other important nutrients all within one single ingredient.

Sialic Acid. Shown to inhibit certain stomach infections.

Liposomes. Used as a controlled delivery mechanism for various drugs.

Immunoglobulin yolk. (IGY). An antibody found in egg yolks.

Egg Yolk Protein. (PHOSVITIN). Provides antioxidant benefits in food products.

Choline. Is important in brain development.

Yolk Lecithin. Has a high proportion of phosphatidylcholine. Egg lecithin contains 63% unsaturated fatty acids including Omega-3 acids, which have been shown to improve visual activity in infants and to improve fatty acid status.

Egg White Lysozyme. Is being marketed in pharmaceutical products and is used as a food preservative.

Shell Membrane Protein. Used to grow human skin fibroblasts experimentally for severe burns. Also being used in Japanese cosmetics.

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